Fayrouz Saad had just started university when two planes struck the World Trade Centre on 11 September, 2001.

The child of immigrants and a practicing Muslim, Ms Saad grew up in the heavily Arab-American city of Dearborn, Michigan. Up to that point, she said, she hadn’t personally experienced much harassment or discrimination. But her parents, who had immigrated from Lebanon some 40 years earlier, were concerned.

“That day, my parents came and picked me up and they took me home, because they were worried about anti-Arab and anti-Muslim backlash happening on campus,” Ms Saad told The Independent.

“And I’ll be honest,” she added, “that was the first time that I ever even realized that this was a thing – that there was a stereotype against Arabs and Muslims in this country.”

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